After a long period of decentralization away from city centers and into suburban and exurban settings in the United States, several key factors contributed to a reversal of this trend. While all the variables are far too diverse to cover, the generational shifts occurring in the United States population were a significant contributor to this trend. Benjamin Ross writes, “A decade into the new millennium, waves of upscale newcomers had washed across the entire island of Manhattan; reached through San Francisco, Boston, Chicago, and Portland, Oregon; and touched nearly every corner of Washington, DC."^[Benjamin Ross, [*Dead End: Suburban Sprawl and the Rebirth of American Urbanism*]( (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), 127.] The trend is evident in many urban centers across America. ## Millennials Pro-urban millennials moved into the city as a reaction to the suburban ideal, preferencing walkable, mixed-use spaces over strip malls and sprawl. >[!Todo] Source this point. ## Empty-Nesters In addition, as the boomer generation shifted into the empty next phase of life, many decided an urban environment provided levels of convenience in retirement. >[!Todo] Source this point. Rapid shifts in urban demographics present both unique challenges and opportunities for [[Urban Missions]], and underscore the significance of Great Commission ministry in city centers and their surrounding metros.