Thinking in progress. Notes under construction. Expect typos and clarifying positions.


Christianize and Civilize

"Christianize and Civilize" was a common call of the Modern Missions Movement during the Era of Noncontextualization. In essence, social uplift (a term used as shorthand for Western cultural transmission) was appended to the evangelical mission of spreading the gospel to the nations. Need documented citations for this from other scolarship, secondary and primary. Can use McKinley's statement about the Phillippines as a quintessential example. But, I need statements from missions aganecies and others as well.

Christianize and Americanize

This conflation of a gospel mission with cultural transmission can even be see in North American Missions during the Gilded Age and Progressive Era, in the form of "Christianize and Americanize" that I refer to as Gilded Age Syncretism. This syncretism is closely related to the concept of the Conditional Manifest Destiny coined by Wendy Deichmann Edwards.Deichmann Edwards, Wendy J. “Forging an Ideology for American Missions: Josiah Strong and Manifest Destiny.” Pages 163–91 in North American Foreign Missions, 1810-1914: Theology, Theory, and Policy. Edited by Wilbert R. Shenk. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004.